PROGRAMMES TO PLAN FOR EFFECTIVE AND SUSTAINED SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT

Each programme contains a series of sessions that are a blend of research and best practice presentations, coupled with workshops designed to tailor content to specific contexts, by blending international advice with local experience and understandings. The programmes require participants to engage actively in the sessions through, for example, using their own school’s survey data, interacting with colleagues, tackling problem solving scenarios, and completing non-threatening assessments of what they have learned and gained from each session.

How to Plan for and Achieve Effective and Sustainable School Improvement

This programme focuses on the phenomenon of change in the context of school improvement. It explores theoretical and research content relevant to the nature of change, factors promoting change and those that challenge it. In particular, it deals with how a more systematic approach to understanding forces and variables influencing school systems, schools and classrooms can be used to avoid simplistic explanations and underdeveloped improvement strategies. We investigate how to elicit open and honest discussions between groups and individuals – a critical prerequisite to consensus building and collective effort. We explore how best to find what are the major factors influencing the school’s performance (positively and negatively).

The topic covers a broad range of school roles and responsibilities that ultimately affect the quality of teaching and learning and how different policies, programmes and practices impact student performance and well-being. The participants will explore what has been learned about change for improvement in schools and systems drawing especially on international research, literature and best practice that contain valuable lessons for local contexts. In particular, the approach will consider the various ‘component parts’ of the school’s responsibilities and activities based on the five domains surveyed in The Balanced Scorecard for Schools Programme (BSfS). Those domains include: School Environment, School Leadership, Teaching and Learning, Well-being and Equity, and Use of Technology. With the benefit of having a report on their own school’s BSfS survey findings, participants will be trained in how they can take full advantage of the rich information and data provided in the report.

A major objective of the training is to build each participant’s knowledge, understanding, skill and (most of all) confidence in knowing what the data says and how it can best be used. Participants will have frequent opportunities to compare their data with others, to apply their data to analytic processes and to link these to improvement strategies. There will be an emphasis on recognising where the data suggests opportunities for improvement and where it endorses current practice. This information will then be coupled to the understanding of the dynamics of change – prospects for positive change and forces working against change. The programme emphasises the importance of context, managing change, inclusivity, communication, engagement and the careful planning and monitoring of progress. It will highlight likely risks and suitable risk management strategies.

Participants will be introduced to a (templated) methodology for building school improvement plans and implementation strategies and will investigate how their school’s BSfS information and data can be used to give content, shape, form and guidance to change strategies. This involves instruction in process and method together with significant sessions that enable participant collaboration in order to model the dynamics of working with strategies for change in their own school setting - where there is a diversity of views, philosophies and personalities. A key objective of the programme will be to locate the content very much in a realistic setting that is directly relevant to, and representative of, the participant’s own school. Another key focus is on the elements of stakeholders’ motivation, engagement, mindsets together with prevailing attitudes and behaviours.

• Determine your vision

Set a meaningful and empowering Vision that supports the formulation of: Objectives, Goals, Targets and defines the relevant Metrics. These are essential and foundational as starting points for evaluation and improvement. Improvement strategies need to produce clearly defined, measurable, achievable, diverse, and encompassing targets and goals. It is critical to know what you want to achieve and be able to determine whether or not you have been successful.

• Recognise that every School is an 'Eco-System'

Real and informed knowledge of what drives and shapes a school’s performance starts by acknowledging a school’s dynamics; its interactions and the key interdependencies between its ‘component parts and elements’. To do this, it is necessary to undertake an extremely broad and comprehensive survey of the school to ensure (a) all important aspects are investigated and (ii) the school’s systems and processes are considered in context and in relation to one another. A common trap when evaluating an organisation’s strengths and weaknesses is to assume systems, processes and practices are ‘linear’ and that cause, and effect are always in close proximity. This often leads to superficial evaluations and misleading conclusions. A school must be understood for what it is, a dynamic and evolving eco-system.

• Understand your school's Data and Findings

Equipped with a wealth of broad, deep information and data from the BSfS’s surveys, the school can proceed to review their report to determine (a) the extent of alignment between the school’s policies, programmes and local practices and international benchmarks (b) use the report data and findings to analyse the extent of agreement of respondents by reporting group and domain and sub-domain, and, most importantly (c) review the endorsements and recommendations in the report that will provide targeted, detailed and very specific advice on how the school might plan for improved (as well as sustained) performance across the five BSfS domains.

• 'Get Below the Surface'

Schools are complex, fast moving, and dynamic. They also contain varied and diverse people with different goals, perceptions, and understandings, Furthermore, there is an equally diverse range of personalities and behaviours (among school leaders, teachers, students, and other members of the school community). This makes for a complicated ‘mix’ of individuals and a challenge to driving positive change. This session explores how this complexity and richness of differences can be better understood and made potentially more manageable. A range of approaches and strategies are considered including, for example, investigating the role and impact of the following: Mind Maps and Mental Representations; Experience, Prejudice and Bias; Mindsets; Personal Style; Expectations and Explanatory Style; Quality of Communication; the Will to Succeed, and Resilience – among and between the school population and how these must be used to influence strategic planning for school improvement.

• Organise for Change

Having explored in depth and detail the data, information, endorsements, and recommendations of the BSfS individual school report, the school is positioned to design, develop, and deploy its strategic improvement plan. The organising template and process for creating the plan is described and explained in the next and final session in this programme (6. Bring it All Together). Before creating the detailed plan, it is advisable to consider how resources will be allocated to the improvement project. The most important decisions relate to the process for Delegating to others, Empowering them, Defining individual and group Roles and Responsibilities, Identifying opportunities for Leverage, and Setting the Improvement Schedule. The schedule should include at a minimum: Specific dates for Monitoring, Milestones and the Metrics that will be used to measure progress.

• Bring it All Together

Using the School Improvement and Development Plan Template – address the details of the process that focusses around the five key questions of: Why? What? How? When? And How Much? The template is organised around the five domains of the BSfS but clearly recognizes the interactivity and interrelatedness of each to each other, and the part each play in the school’s eco-system. Participants will be invited to work together to devise and develop their improvement plans, focusing on the process and component parts at this stage, rather than seeking to achieve a final working plan.

Key Lessons Learned from International Research, Experience and Best Practice

This programme draws on the Balanced Scorecard for Schools programme’s vast International Evidence Base together with other leading international research and literature to highlight widely agreed and recommended policies, programmes and practices. (Including, for example, drawing extensively on publications of the OECD and the NCEE in Washington DC, findings from neuroscience about how we learn, and an increasingly developed body of knowledge of factors affecting student well-being).

We share with participants the most essential practices that have been shown to work effectively in varied contexts, including at classroom, school and system level. This programme takes a broad-based approach that combines the content of the BSfS focus and programme with the wider environment in which a school operates. The programme, for example, connects school practice to how knowledge and skills will likely need to operate in a 21st Century workplace, how the demands of globalisation impact what students need to know and are able to do, and most importantly, how schools can work to mitigate the level of educational inequity among students.

Participants will also be invited to consider and respond to a range of ‘provocations’ designed to stimulate thought, reflection and discussion within the group. Importantly, it is a programme designed to encourage individuals and teams to be comfortable to consider strategies and solutions at both the ‘micro’ and the ‘macro’ level, and to consider to what extent strategies and solutions from the past might no longer serve us well in the future.

• Look Outwards – Learning from International Research, Experience and Evidence: System-based Improvement

Looking particularly at organisations like the OECD and the massive data sets and analyses produced for the PISA and TALIS surveys specifically, and also rich secondary level analyses, commentaries, and major research-based publications. Through the use of a broad base of expert researchers, analysts, writers and thinkers in education, participants will identify those countries that have high-quality policies and practices leading to high-performance, and ones that are largely culturally neutral, and contextually equivalent or compatible. The material selected will be broad-based - sampling key elements from across the BSfS’s five domains. This session will focus more on the ‘macro’ elements of school and system improvement through international benchmarking. Sessions 4 and 5 below focus more on ‘micro’ solutions and practices – at school level.

• Avoid 'cutting and pasting' from one system to another – Instead, Explore, Understand, Contextualize, then Adapt

A key risk and criticism associated with looking for examples and models in other places (systems or nations) is that cultural and contextual differences are too great to allow for successful ‘importation’ of policies and practices. While this is an important cautionary note, it is not an accurate nor compelling reason to avoid looking elsewhere for inspiration and best practice. It is noteworthy that high performing systems like Singapore, Finland, Korea, and Shanghai all borrowed freely (though wisely) from others. Learning from the best has both face validity and substantial merit when the content is chosen astutely, carefully matched to and evaluated against, the ‘host’ country, and when it is modified and adapted to local needs and contexts. Participants will be introduced to extremely specific examples of where countries and systems have successfully adopted the policies, programmes, and practices of others. Emphasis will be on those elements of teaching and learning that are especially ‘universal’ and less dependent on context, climate, and culture. A range of policies and practices that are of this type will be introduced and studied.

• Determine Priorities and Strategies to ensure your School continues to meet the challenges of work and life in the 21st century

This session considers a range of factors. It explores how confidently the school and its teachers understand (i) the needs of 21st century life and work (ii) what is involved with 21st century-focused knowledge and skills (iii) how they are best taught, and (iv) how they are effectively assessed. To this extent, this session covers the three foundations of teaching and learning in 21st century content – curriculum content, pedagogical content, and assessment (and reporting).

• Bringing International Lessons into the Classroom [1]

Leading and relevant international best practices and techniques are high-lighted and explained in this session, so that participants can become equipped with an ‘inventory’ of best practice to employ as part of their school improvement strategy. (Of course, for BSfS clients, many elements of this content will have already been presented to the school in the form of the content of the school’s BSfS report and its Recommendations, and in this way will be self-reinforcing.)

• Bringing International Lessons into the Classroom [2]

This is a somewhat unique feature of the BSfS programme which seeks out content from the international literature that can be adopted in the classroom. It is less common for the results of programmes like PISA to be used to inform classroom practice directly, even though a good deal of the content from PISA reports and the OECD’s analyses, for example, relates directly to teaching and learning. This session, therefore, seeks out key content that can validly and successfully influence and guide classroom practice.

• Debunk Education Myths

It is always important and professionally valuable for educators to be familiar with the more common and so-called “myths” of education. Many of these myths have been debunked by the OECD’s PISA findings. It is important to know why these are myths and what in fact the data really show. Participants will be (i) introduced to the main myths which (ii) will then be thoroughly examined, including through the use of examples, and then (iii) provided with compelling evidence to discount them.

Essential Teaching Techniques to Improve Student Performance and Well-Being

This programme focuses directly on lessons for teachers from findings in Domain 3 (Teaching & Learning) and Domain 4 (Well-being & Equity) of the BSfS programme. It focuses on all the key areas identified in the International Evidence Base relating to effective teaching and learning and to the promotion and achievement of at least minimum acceptable levels of student well-being. The content of good and best practice is contextualized specifically in the classroom and uses participants’ as well as other case-study-based experiences to better understand and explain the application of the principles and practices being recommended. Additionally, participants will be encouraged to reflect upon, compare and evaluate their own practices, experiences, conceptions and observations against the material presented.

Participants will be asked to refer to, and draw upon, the information and data contained in their own BSfS School Report, especially for these two domains, to explore in more detail what their survey findings are telling them. Discussion will also focus on the data about levels of agreement both between and within survey respondent groups and how this is interpreted, and what it means for improvement plans and strategies.

A key objective of this programme will be to equip participants with an ‘inventory’ of knowledge, understanding and skills that enhances their existing repertoire and tool kit of teaching techniques. Most importantly, we also hope that participants will emerge from the programme’s training, experiences, exchanges and interactions with an enhanced sense of confidence and self-efficacy in relation to their performance in their profession.

• Identify the Core and Essential Knowledge, Skills, Understandings and Behaviours of Leading Teachers

This programme is based on the fundamental principle that it is possible to distinguish between different levels of quality and standards in teaching. ‘Leading’ teachers are those who have developed their professional practice of teaching to a standard that is highly effective and can be used as a guide to less experienced, less expert teachers. This session emphasises the value of mentoring, collaboration, and the sharing of professional practice between expert and less expert teachers. This session highlights some of the key features and behaviours that characterize the practice of leading teachers, features and behaviours that all aspiring teachers can emulate and adopt. There is a strong emphasis on practical and achievable methods. The session also ‘looks behind’ the practices to explore the thinking and understandings that inform them.

• Understand the Critical Role for Combined Pedagogical Knowledge in addition to Content Knowledge in Successful Teaching

Teaching comprises a combination of subject content knowledge and subject pedagogical knowledge. While subject knowledge is carefully detailed and commonly understood, pedagogical knowledge is often less well known and understood, even though it is of the utmost importance. It incorporates: the philosophical, theoretical, and practical approaches, sets of events, activities, processes, practices, and methodologies that guide teaching and learning. It includes knowledge of teaching strategies and knowledge about teaching, Specifically this includes an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, presented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners and the ways of representing and formulating the subject that makes it comprehensible to others.3 This session explores and explains the importance of teachers developing expertise in both dimensions of the disciplines they teach. It also includes consideration of the management and effective delivery for students with special education needs.

• Prioritise the Findings of Neuroscience for Education

The major importance and value of neuroscience findings to teaching, unfortunately, are just not being matched by a level of interest and a rate of adoption appropriate 3 See https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/faculty-perspectives-of-technology-enhanced-course-redesign/51570 48 to the value of this new-found knowledge. This session focuses on how neuroscience has developed and made a huge contribution to ‘education science’ – the science of how we learn. The principles and understandings that are embedded in education science can powerfully inform teaching and learning. Enhanced teacher understanding, for example, of principles such as ‘transfer’ in knowledge acquisition and the role of prior knowledge is key to improved teaching and learning. Teachers and students benefit greatly from a better understanding of what motivates students, from spacing lessons over time, utilizing cognitive tutoring (especially, for example, in mathematics), employing repetition and varied approaches to get the most out of learning, exploiting the value of facilitating learning as a social activity thereby boosting student engagement, knowledge and skill acquisition, and of increasing importance, a growing understanding of the nature and impact of student learning difficulties and conditions (such as autism). This session is designed to highlight the key findings and add them to the teacher’s ‘toolbox’ of professional knowledge and skills.

• Understand the link between Student Well-being and Academic Success

We now know beyond any doubt about the critical link between student well-being and their capacity to learn. Enhanced student well-being equals an enhanced propensity to learn. Having established the link, it then becomes key to understand what enhances and what threatens student well-being. Recently, there has been an upsurge in research and literature, especially from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), focusing on student well-being4. This session systematically explores the leading dimensions to student well-being, the important factors that influence it, and how teachers and school leaders can proactively promote and enrich student experiences at school, including about feeling safe, being included, having the confidence to venture out in their learning and not be afraid of making mistakes, and developing a ‘growth mindset’. It explores the important features of the learning environment that promote well-being, and what international policies, programmes and practices are achieving significant success in this dimension of student welfare and development.

• Explore and Understand the Optimal use of Technology to support Effective Student Learning

Technology has transformed virtually every area of human activity, impacting the way we do things, the speed with which we do them, the sophistication of what we do, and the breadth of what we can do. Noticeably, however, technology has not had the same degree of penetration into classrooms. School-based technology is evident in the use of computing power, audio-visual presentations and mechanization of processes (for example, the use of the internet for information gathering and processing, computing power for animation, simulation and design, PowerPoint presentations and even the use of drone technology), however, in few places has 4 Refer, for example, OECD, PISA 2015 Results, Volume III 49 technology fundamentally affected the teaching and learning process. There are very few technological paradigm shifts in learning in schools. The main reason for this is that there is less of an imperative for change in schools compared to industry and lifestyle, there is an absence of competition which seeks a market edge, and a commonly held concern or skepticism prevails among many teachers around the most fundamental principles of the role for technology in learning. As a result, opportunities for some transformative learning experiences are being lost. This session explores the most fundamental principles and guidelines that need to apply to the use of technology in the classroom. It analyses the essential difference between technology-leading instruction and principles of sound instruction dictating how technology should be applied to learning. The session is designed to equip teachers and school leaders with a solid understanding of how technology must conform to how we learn, while also potentially enhancing learning as a social activity, and much better matching the student’s learning experience to the content of what is being learned through technology solutions. In summary, the session focuses on prioritizing learning in the learning-technology mix while at the same time maximising the benefits of using technology in learning.

• Use Assessment to Maximise the Potential for Student Learning and Development

The distinction between assessment of learning, assessment for learning and assessment as learning is becoming increasingly well-known and understood in schools. The focus and objective of this session is to explore these three distinct roles for assessment in learning, to reinforce the attributes and features of each, and how they are employed to maximum benefit in classrooms. The session will also explore the range, types and forms of assessment and strategies for ensuring the best match between student performance and its assessment. Discussion will also focus on the more common forms of data associated with assessment, including measures and terminology that will serve to introduce key assessment terms and concepts to teachers and school leaders, or refresh and reinforce them in those with pre-existing knowledge. Particular attention will be paid to the real value of assessment for stimulating effective feedback and important traps to avoid in the use of assessment instruments and data that can result in negative outcomes.

Gaining a Better Understanding of Educational Assessment and How to Deliver Effective and Better Assessment in the Classroom

Assessment of student performance is a core feature of the content of the BSfS programme. It is also pivotal and vital to effective teaching and learning. This programme explores the nature, purpose and various available forms of educational assessment, commencing with an introduction for participants to both theoretical features and practical application of fundamental assessment principles and techniques – while avoiding overly technical and unnecessary detail that can become off-putting for some participants. The material presented and discussed will inform important distinctions such as ‘summative’ versus ‘formative’ assessment, the difference between ‘assessment of learning’, ‘assessment for learning’ and ‘assessment as learning’, and some of the more commonly encountered forms of measurement scales used in education and elsewhere such as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio.

For the purposes of broadening the participant’s knowledge and to contextualise classroom-based assessment, we shall also investigate, for example, not only key concepts such as validity and reliability, but also in more detail important distinctions between different aspects of validity including concurrent validity, predictive validity, construct validity, face validity and content validity. We briefly consider and distinguish between various types of ability and aptitude tests and look at the benefits and constraints of different forms of assessment for different purposes and in different settings. This will include an overview of some important key concepts and terms typically found in assessment and performance reports. This work sets the foundation for what follows.

Participants will focus on building understanding, interpreting and applying their knowledge of assessment to not only reports, but equally to research findings and the use and misuse of assessment data. There will be discussion of recent and unhelpful developments in many countries that are privileging ‘hard data’ and overemphasizing test-based accountability. The sessions will also focus closely on the implications of this for the classroom teacher. Presentations and discussions will explore the various types of assessment instruments that are available for the teacher to use in the classroom (such as essays, teacher-authored tests, performance tasks, presentations and exhibitions, portfolios of work, observation, journals, peer and self-assessment) and how they can be made to best fit what is being assessed.

Special emphasis will be placed on the value of assessment for and as learning. The value of formative assessment will be conspicuously advocated as one of the most powerful teaching and learning tools in the classroom, and arguably the most effective of all classroom assessment activities. This will be done through referencing the ever-increasing body of evidence, advocated by experts such as Dylan William and the Assessment Reform Group. Discussion will focus on the attributes of formative assessment and what distinguishes quality formative assessment from less-effective formative assessment. This will also be coupled with an examination of research on effective questioning and exercises for participants in formulating questions, questioning strategies and opportunities, and the importance of cultural backgrounds and ethnicity on student behaviour and performance during question and answer sessions in the classroom.

• Understand Educational Assessments

This session will set the theoretical foundations for the remainder of the sessions, highlighting key assessment concepts, terminology, data types and uses. It will focus specifically on performance assessment in educational settings, with particular emphasis on the implications and value of assessment and assessment data to school-based and classroom-based decision making. The essential difference between and the key features of ‘formative’ and ‘summative’ assessment will be explored in detail, including clearly articulating how each should and should not be used. Hands-on work will introduce participants to commonly used assessment data sets, what they are telling us, and how they are interpreted. There will also be a focus on common terminology, examples of large-scale assessments, and a brief introduction to important terms and concepts such as ‘validity’ and ‘reliability’. Similarly, participants will investigate and discuss important concepts such as the standard deviation, frequency distributions, skewed distributions etc. Frequent reference to and use of real assessment programme data and reports will ensure participants gain a sound practical working knowledge of assessment content.

• Match Assessment Type to Task, Purpose and Validity

Participants will be introduced to a wide and diverse range of assessment instrument types and designs. The session will explore the relevant principles and considerations that relate to these different assessment types. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of maximising the ‘fit’ between the student’s performance that is to be assessed and the assessment instrument used. Participants will also consider other aspects of the choice of assessment instrument, such as: cost, practicality, security, time required to conduct the assessment, the relative importance of feedback, options for reporting (a data set, descriptive reporting, etc.), resource requirements, validity and reliability, ease of scoring, together with a number of other considerations. Emphasis will also be placed on the key principle of assessments that are ‘fit for purpose’. Participants will be invited to reflect on their practices, the range of assessment item types they use, and the potential for developing a more comprehensive and broad-based suite of assessment instruments for use in the classroom. Consideration will be given to the assessment of special education needs

• Explore Features of Assessment Data and Understand Meaning of Data

There are significant differences between teachers and also between school leaders regarding their familiarity with, expert knowledge of, and level of confidence in using, assessment data. It should never be assumed that a teacher or school leader 63 necessarily understands and can accurately interpret data, and this is of particular importance when so much contemporary advice emphasises that school decision making should be ‘evidence-based’. This session aims to introduce participants to the particular features of assessment data, how to read what the data are telling us, and knowing what the important limitations are as well as the qualities of such data. The session will be very ’hands on’ and involve participants interrogating their school’s BSfS survey data as well as a selection of other typical assessment data sets (such as the OECD’s PISA data). Participants will be invited to use the data for purposes of comparison and to determine the ‘significance’ of differences in the data. Concepts such as ‘statistically significant differences’ will be discussed, as well as ‘effect sizes’. Discussion and analysis will also centre on various means for graphically representing data and the strengths and limitations of such representations.

• Analyse and Interpret Assessment Data to Reinforce and Enhance Teaching and Learning

The use of assessment data to provide feedback and guidance to students is becoming an increasingly widespread practice, and one to be strongly encouraged. Research clearly demonstrates that feedback to students, especially timely feedback, is an immensely powerful tool to support effective teaching and learning. In the same way that assessment findings provide feedback to students and to teachers about student progress, assessment feedback also provides valuable information about the effectiveness of teaching. In this session participants will investigate how assessment data of all types can highlight potential strengths and weaknesses in teaching. This session will draw together the specifications of assessment targets in the curriculum, typically in the form of ‘achievement standards’ together with ‘proficiency scales’ – the standards and benchmarks against which student knowledge and skill acquisition are measured. These standards and scales specify not only what knowledge and skills students should acquire, but also levels of performance and achievement. We therefore focus on the learning ‘cycle’ of: Curriculum – Teaching – Assessment – Reporting. We then examine the cycle where the curriculum specifies what students should learn, and to what standard, and then assessment tasks test the extent to which students have reached the target levels of performance, which are then reported back. Detailed reporting of the assessment can then be fed back into the teaching process to determine which curriculum areas students have grasped well and which they have not. This is then used to evaluate strong and weaker areas of teaching, and where re-teaching is needed. Teachers will be strongly encouraged to be open and receptive to such feedback on their teaching and use it for future improvement. The session will stress the importance of setting clear goals and targets for teaching outcomes, together with specific and detailed indicators of success and attainment. This process can be applied to both formative and summative assessment data.

• Ensure the Frequent Use of Formative Assessment in the Classroom.

The Balanced Scorecard for Schools programme endorses formative assessment as one of the most important opportunities and processes to support effective teaching and learning. While recognising the importance of external and internal summative assessments in providing objective, end-of-period appraisals of student performance, formative assessment will be examined in detail to highlight its capacity to ensure ongoing learning, progressive monitoring, continuous feedback, and regular record-keeping. Formative assessment is the mode of assessment most closely attuned to the phenomenon of knowledge transfer and the paramount importance of prior knowledge for the acquisition of new knowledge. Participants will be introduced to the key component parts of quality formative assessment and invited to reflect on how they as teachers do, or might, effectively employ and prioritise formative assessment in their classes.

• Distinguish between Valid and Appropriate Use of Assessment Data compared with Invalid and Inappropriate Use of the Data

In recent decades student performance data, especially test data, has been used increasingly as a measure of school performance. In some systems, these data are also used as a measure of teacher and principal performance. The United States of America is one such example of a proliferation of testing and test-based school accountability. The increased importance that has been placed on test data has been met with a growing concern among educators, and even measurement specialists, that the data are increasingly being used for purposes for which they have not been designed, for which they are technically unsuited, and or are being used to guide decision making when the data are too narrow in scope to do this accurately and legitimately. Experts like Daniel Koretz and members of the UK Assessment Reform Group continue to express serious concerns about particular practices and decision- making that use assessment data. This session will analyse different assessment data sets and the contexts in which they are, and should be, used. Conversely, we shall explore how and where the data are being used for purposes that cannot be justified, or where better measures exist. Consistent with The Balanced Scorecard for Schools approach, the session will promote the use of a broad range of metrics and indicators to assess the performance of students, teachers, school leaders, schools, and school systems. The objective is to have participants be aware of the range of assessment data available to educators and decision-makers, and to be equally aware of their appropriate and inappropriate use in measuring performance.